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Martynia annua

Family

Pedaliaceae

Botanical Name

Martynia annua L.

Linnaeus, C. von (1753) Species Plantarum 2: 618. Type: Habitat in Americes vera Cruce.

Synonyms

Martynia fragrans Lindl., Edwards's Botanical Register 26: (1840), Type: for which I am indebted to Mr. Marnock, of the nursery, Hackney. ... and is a native of Mexico, in the vicinity of Real del Monte mines. Martynia proboscidea Gloxin, Observationes Botanicae: 14(1777), Type: Habitat ad Misisippi flumen. Martynia louisiana Mill., The Gardeners Dictionary: no. 3(1768), Type: - discovered by the late Dr. William Houstoun, near La Vera Cruz, in New Spain. Martynia driandra Gloxin, Observationes Botanicae: 14(1777), Type: Habitat ad Americae Veram Crucem. Martynia lutea Lindl., Edwards's Botanical Register 11: t. 93(1825), Type: from the Brazils.

Common name

Small Fruited Devil's Claw; Devil's Claws

Weed

*

Stem

Usually flowers and fruits as a herb but sometimes as a shrub about 1-2 m tall.

Leaves

Sticky-topped glandular hairs present on both the upper and lower leaf blade surfaces and also on the twigs, stems and petioles. Stems hollow. Leaf blades usually quite large, about 10-25 x 9-25 cm. Petioles about 18-20 cm long.

Flowers

Sticky glandular hairs present on all parts of the inflorescence (including pedicels, calyx and corolla). Pedicels about 10-25 mm long. Calyx about 15-20 mm long. Corolla about 55-65 mm overall, tube about 35-45 mm long. Corolla spotted on the inner surface, the spots yellow, pink or purple. Anther locules divaricate but aligned in a vertical plane. Pollen white. Staminodes three, two large and one small. Ovary glabrous. Style about 25-30 mm long. Stigmatic lobes two, unequal in size.

Fruit

Fruits about 32-33 x 17-20 mm with two sharp-hooked spines at the apex. Endocarp +/- 8-ribbed. Seeds 4 per fruit, each seed about 15-20 x 4-5 mm, laterally compressed, winged at each end. Embryo about 11-12 mm long, cotyledons auriculate or sagittate at the base, much wider than the radicle.

Seedlings

At the tenth leaf stage: leaf blade +/- cordate, about 8.5-10 x 8.5-10 cm, margin sparsely toothed. The entire seedling clothed in glandular hairs which give the plant a sticky and slimy texture. Taproot carrot-like (Daucus carota).

Distribution and Ecology

An introduced species originally from Mexico, now naturalized in NT, NEQ and southwards as far as north-eastern New South Wales. Altitudinal range in NEQ from 250-1350 m. Usually grows as a weed of agricultural land but also found in monsoon forest and vine thickets in NEQ. Also naturalized in Asia and Malesia.

Natural History

This species may have medicinal properties. (http://squid2.laughingsquid.net/hosts/herbweb.com /herbage/A16699.htm)

NEQ

X

Herb (herbaceous or woody, under 1 m tall)

X

Shrub (woody or herbaceous, 1-6 m tall)

X

RFK Code

3426