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Leaves and Flowers. Copyright CSIRO
Flowers. Copyright CSIRO
Scale bar 10mm. Copyright CSIRO
10th leaf stage. Copyright CSIRO
Habit, leaves and fruit. Copyright CSIRO
Martynia annua L.
Linnaeus, C. von (1753) Species Plantarum 2: 618. Type: Habitat in Americes vera Cruce.
Martynia fragrans Lindl., Edwards's Botanical Register 26: (1840), Type: for which I am indebted to Mr. Marnock, of the nursery, Hackney. ... and is a native of Mexico, in the vicinity of Real del Monte mines. Martynia proboscidea Gloxin, Observationes Botanicae: 14(1777), Type: Habitat ad Misisippi flumen. Martynia louisiana Mill., The Gardeners Dictionary: no. 3(1768), Type: - discovered by the late Dr. William Houstoun, near La Vera Cruz, in New Spain. Martynia driandra Gloxin, Observationes Botanicae: 14(1777), Type: Habitat ad Americae Veram Crucem. Martynia lutea Lindl., Edwards's Botanical Register 11: t. 93(1825), Type: from the Brazils.
Small Fruited Devil's Claw; Devil's Claws
Usually flowers and fruits as a herb but sometimes as a shrub about 1-2 m tall.
Sticky-topped glandular hairs present on both the upper and lower leaf blade surfaces and also on the twigs, stems and petioles. Stems hollow. Leaf blades usually quite large, about 10-25 x 9-25 cm. Petioles about 18-20 cm long.
Sticky glandular hairs present on all parts of the inflorescence (including pedicels, calyx and corolla). Pedicels about 10-25 mm long. Calyx about 15-20 mm long. Corolla about 55-65 mm overall, tube about 35-45 mm long. Corolla spotted on the inner surface, the spots yellow, pink or purple. Anther locules divaricate but aligned in a vertical plane. Pollen white. Staminodes three, two large and one small. Ovary glabrous. Style about 25-30 mm long. Stigmatic lobes two, unequal in size.
Fruits about 32-33 x 17-20 mm with two sharp-hooked spines at the apex. Endocarp +/- 8-ribbed. Seeds 4 per fruit, each seed about 15-20 x 4-5 mm, laterally compressed, winged at each end. Embryo about 11-12 mm long, cotyledons auriculate or sagittate at the base, much wider than the radicle.
At the tenth leaf stage: leaf blade +/- cordate, about 8.5-10 x 8.5-10 cm, margin sparsely toothed. The entire seedling clothed in glandular hairs which give the plant a sticky and slimy texture. Taproot carrot-like (Daucus carota).
Distribution and Ecology
An introduced species originally from Mexico, now naturalized in NT, NEQ and southwards as far as north-eastern New South Wales. Altitudinal range in NEQ from 250-1350 m. Usually grows as a weed of agricultural land but also found in monsoon forest and vine thickets in NEQ. Also naturalized in Asia and Malesia.
This species may have medicinal properties. (http://squid2.laughingsquid.net/hosts/herbweb.com /herbage/A16699.htm)
Herb (herbaceous or woody, under 1 m tall)
Shrub (woody or herbaceous, 1-6 m tall)