Click on images
Flowers. Copyright CSIRO
Cotyledon and 1st leaf stage, hypogeal germination. Copyright CSIRO
Scale bar 10mm. Copyright CSIRO
Quisqualis indica L.
Linnaeus, C. von (1762) Species Plantarum ed. 2, 1: 556. Type: Habitat in India..
Creeper, Rangoon; Drunken Sailor; Rangoon Creeper
Vine stem diameters to 3 cm recorded. Bark finely flaky.
Leaf blades about 4-11 x 2-5 cm, petioles about 0.4-1.5 cm long. Both the upper and lower leaf blade surfaces with hairs along the midrib and lateral veins. Stems, petioles and buds clothed in hairs. Oil dots numerous. Twigs may sometimes be armed with spines about 10-12 mm long and borne opposite one another. Lateral veins about 5-9 on each side of the midrib.
Flowers about 2.5-3 cm diam. Calyx tube (hypanthium) about 6.5-7 cm long, inner surface deep red, outer surface much paler. Staminal filaments about 3.5-4 mm long, anthers about 1 mm long. Style attached to the hypanthium for most of its length, free style about 10 mm long. Ovary 5 or 6 ribbed, ovules pendulous.
Fruits about 3.5 x 1.3 cm, longitudinally 5-winged or ribbed. Seeds about 1.8 x 0.9 cm.
Cataphylls clothed in hairs, usually 3 or 4 cataphylls produced before the first true leaves. First leaves ovate to elliptic, apex acute, base cordate. Upper and lower leaf blade surfaces clothed in hairs. Midrib raised in a depression on the upper surface of the leaf blade, lateral veins depressed on the upper surface of the leaf blade.
Distribution and Ecology
An introduced species originally from Africa and Asia now 'naturalized' in NT and NEQ. Altitudinal range in NEQ from near sea level to 750 m. Usually found at old settlement sites where it tends to persist by means of root suckers. However, recent collections of fruit in NEQ indicate that it is truly naturalized. Grows in regrowth forests and disturbed areas in monsoon forest, lowland and upland rain forest.
Although this species is not regarded as naturalized in North Queensland (Pedley (1990)), recent collections of fruits suggest that the process of naturalization is occurring as appears to be the case in the Northern Territory. Byrnes (1977)