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Leaves and fruit. Copyright CSIRO
Leaves and Flowers. Copyright CSIRO
Flowers. Copyright CSIRO
Flower and buds. Copyright Barry Jago
Scale bar 10mm. Copyright CSIRO
10th leaf stage. Copyright CSIRO
Cotyledon stage, epigeal germination. Copyright CSIRO
Toona ciliata M.Roem.
Roemer, M.J. (1846) Synops. Monogr. 1: 139. Type: Madras, India, W. Roxburgh in herb. Willd. 4828; holo: B-WILLD, iso: BM (6 Nov. 1799)? Fide Mabberley.
Surenus toona (Rottler) Kuntze, Revisio Generum Plantarum 1: 111(1891), Type: ?. Cedrela toona Rottler, Gesellschaft Naturforschende Freunde. Neue Schriften 4: 198(1803), Type: Madras. Novembr. 6. 1799. Cedrela toona var. australis (F.Muell.) C.DC., Records of the Botanical Survey of India 3: 368(1908), Type: ?. Cedrela toona var. grandiflora C.DC., Monographiae Phanerogamarum 1: 745(1878), Type: In Nova Hollandia (herb. Deless.). Cedrela toona var. parviflora Benth., Flora Australiensis 1: 387(1863), Type: Clarence river, Wilcox. Cedrela toona var. vestita C.T.White, Queensland Agricultural Journal Series 2 13: 66(1920), Type: Parishes of Dundas and Byron (Warwick District). Assistant Forester W.E. Moore. Surenus australis (F.Muell.) Kuntze, Revisio Generum Plantarum 1: 111(1891), Type: ?. Toona australis (F.Muell.) Harms, Die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien 3(4): 270(1896), Type: ?. Cedrela australis F.Muell., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae 1: 4(1858), Type: In silvis litoralibus Australiae orientalis.
Cedar, Red; Cedar; Red Cedar
Deciduous; leafless for a period between June and August. Both blaze and wood have a faint but rather pleasant aroma (cigar box or incense).
Inflorescence often 30-40 cm long, approximating but seldom exceeding the leaves. Calyx lobes about 1 mm long. Petals about 3.5-4 x 3.5-4 mm. Staminal filaments hairy, about 1.5 mm long, inserted in the hairy, orange disk. Ovary base surrounded by the disk. Ovules about 6-10 per locule. Style short, stigma terminal, +/- peltate.
Cotyledons elliptic, about 8-10 mm long. At the tenth leaf stage: leaflet blades ovate, apex acuminate, base cuneate or obtuse, hairy on the upper surface at least along midrib, margins serrate, about 3-8 teeth occur along the margin on the upper half of the leaflet blade; petiole and rhachis of compound leaf hairy.
Distribution and Ecology
Occurs in CYP, NEQ and southwards to south eastern New South Wales. Altitudinal range from near sea level to 1000 m. Grows in well developed rain forest on a variety of sites but probably reaches its best development (in northern Australia) in upland rain forest on soils derived from basalt. Also occurs in Asia and Malesia.
This species produces the Red Cedar timber of commerce. It has been pursued since the early days of European settlement in Australia. Trees grow rapidly and produce a soft durable timber which is easy to work and has always been prized as a cabinet wood. A lot of the settlement along the East coast of Australia was preceded by cedar getters who were always travelling around looking for new stands of Red Cedar. Logs of Red Cedar float and this attribute was handy in the early days before the construction of roads and bridges. Early attempts on the Atherton Tableland to float cedar logs down the flooded Barron River to the port of Cairns were disastrous with many of the logs being smashed during the passage down the Barron Falls and other floating out to sea.
The timber of this species has always been highly regarded in the manufacture of light-weight racing boats particularly sailing boats and dinghys.
Formerly used in the manufacture of cigar boxes, window frames. A useful carving timber Swain (1928).
Wood specific gravity 0.45. Cause et al. (1989).