Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants banner
Character Index banner

Germination type

For further information on these germination types see Ng (1975, 1978).


S 1 epigeal

The cotyledons are raised above the soil surface, emerge from the seed coat and usually become photosynthetically active.
NB: Features S5-S28 can be used with plants showing this type of germination. Seedlings that have lost their cotyledons, but showing cotyledon scars on the stem above ground level, do not necessarily exhibit epigeal germination as seedlings with durian germination can also show cotyledon scars above ground level.

S 2 semi-hypogeal

The cotyledons remain at or slightly below ground level, emerge from the seed coat and usually become photosynthetically active.
NB: Features S5-S28 are not applicable.

S 3 hypogeal

The cotyledons remain below the soil surface enclosed in the seed coat and do not become photosynthetically active. 
NB: Features S5-S28 are not applicable.

S 4 "durian"

The hypocotyl develops and elongates but the cotyledons remain enclosed in the seed coat.  The seed is often raised above the surface of the ground but in other cases it remains at or below ground level.
NB: Features S5-S28 are not applicable.