Abaxial: > The side of an organ away from the axis. cf. Adaxial.
Acicular: Slender or needle-shaped.
Actinomorphic: Refers to flowers with a regular pattern. Flowers which can be bisected by two or more vertical planes to produce similar halves. cf. Zygomorphic
Aculeolate: Somewhat prickly.
Acute: An angle less than 90 degrees. Usually refers to the extremity of an organ.
Adaxial: The side of an organ adjacent to the axis. cf. Abaxial
Adnate: Attached to.
Adventitious: Usually used to describe roots or leafy shoots which arise other than in the normal position; e.g. roots which arise from the stem or branches rather than the roots or the radicle, or shoots which arise from the stem instead of the axils of leaves.
Amorphous: Shapeless, without any definite structure.
Anastomosing: The branching and fusing of structures (such as veins) to form a reticulate pattern where the branch angles are acute. This feature is often seen on maps where rivers flowing through very flat areas branch and rejoin one another.
Androgynophore: The column on which stamens and carpels are borne.
Annular: In a ring or arranged in a circle.
Apex: The tip of an organ.
Apiculate: Ending in a sharp but flexible point. Often refers to the tip of a leaf.
Apocarpous: With separate and distinct carpels in the flower.
Aril: An Aril is difficult to define but the term is generally restricted to fleshy growths from the funicle or from the hilum, i.e. from the base of the seed or its point of attachment. To be classed as an aril it must enclose at least part of the seed. An aril often resembles an egg cup around the base of the egg. No distinction is made in this key between arils, arillodes and sarcotestas and all are included in the generic term aril. Arils are usually found on seeds in dehiscent or tardily dehiscent fruits but there are exceptions to this generalisation. The edible part of a litchi, Litchi chinensis, is an aril.
Asymmetric: Refers to organs which cannot be divided into halves which are mirror images of one another.
Attenuate: Tapering gradually.
Auricle: A small lobe or ear-shaped appendage.
Auriculate: An ear-shaped appendage or lobe.
Banyan: A term used to describe fig trees (Ficus spp.) which drop aerial roots from their branches down to the ground. The aerial roots grow in size to become pillar-like and the branch continues to grow horizontally and repeat the process so that over a period of time one tree can cover a wide area.
Basifixed: Attached by the base, often used to describe anthers which are attached to the filament in such a fashion.
Bastard scrub: A predominantly Queensland term used to describe rain forest with emergent eucalypts above the rain forest canopy.
Bifoliate: With two leaves.
Bisexual: Producing both stamens and pistils, i.e. hermaphrodite.
Blade: The expanded portion of a leaf.
Blaze (inner & outer): Blaze is a term used to describe the longitudinal section of the bark of a tree which is revealed by making a + vertical,tangential cut, traditionally made with an axe or brushhook but a pocket knife is recommended in this Key.
Bole: The stem of a tree.
Bracts: Much modified and much reduced leaves usually found in inflorescences, variously dispersed, but frequently at the base of flowers or flower stalks.
Branchlet: A small branch.
Brushook: A very useful implement resembling a heavy grade reaping hook but mounted on a long straight handle. The handle is held in both hands and the implement us used by swinging it in a similar manner to an axe.
Bulbils: Small bulbs; usually used to describe structures produced on above-ground parts of a plant.
Bullate: Surface marked by bubble-like structures.
Butt: The lower part of the trunk of a tree close to ground level.
Buttresses: Flanges or bracket-like structures at the base of some rain forest trees. They are usually flattened extensions of the main lateral roots but in some cases, e.g. Ficus spp. and Syzygium gustavioides, they can be enlarged adventitious roots which have grown from the stem to the ground.
Caducous: Falling or being shed early in the developmental stage of an organ or structure.
Calyptra: In this key this refers to the cap-like structure covering the stamens etc. in the flower bud. It is formed by the fusion of sepals and/or petals. The calyptra (or operculum) is usually shed as a complete unit as the flower matures. This may happen just prior to anthesis or it can occur quite early in the development of the flower.
Cambial layer: A narrow layer of actively dividing living tissue between the sapwood and the bark. Macroscopically it appears to be no more than a slippery or mucilaginous layer separating the wood and the bark.
Campanulate: Shaped like a church bell.
Canaliculate: Channelled, with a longitudinal groove.
Canescent: Hoary or becoming grey or hoary.
Carpel: The structure within the flower which bears the ovules. Carpels take many forms and may be separated from one another as in the family Annonaceae or may be fused to form an ovary which may or may not be divided into locules, e.g. Myrtaceae, Pittosporaceae.
Cataphyll: In this key the term cataphyll is only used in connection with seedlings. Cataphylls are small scale leaves or leaf-like structures which do not develop into true leaves. They usually appear between the cotyledons and the first true leaves but they can also appear at other positions on the seedling.
Caudate: With a tail-like appendage.
Cauliflorous: Bearing flowers on the stem.
Cauline: Pertaining to the stem.
Cerebriform: With an irregular brain-like appearance.
Ciliate: With hairs along the margin.
Ciliolate: With small hairs along the margin.
Circumscissile: Dehiscing, breaking or parting along a transverse line around the circumference.
Cladode: A branch which has been modified to perform the function of a leaf. This normally means it contains chlorophyll and is photosynthetically active. The shape may resemble that of the commonly encountered angiosperm leaves but it can be more or less cylindrical as in the needles of Casuarinaceae.
Closed forest: Vegetation dominated by trees whose crowns touch or overlap giving a complete coverage of the ground.
Cochleate: A spiral shape resembling that of a snail.
Coherent: Attached or sticking together.
Colliculate: Clothed in numerous structures resembling hills in shape.
Conchiform: Shell-shaped, i.e. one half of a bivalve shell (not an artillery shell).
Cone: Usually woody or leathery, dehiscent multiple fruits with the seeds enclosed by large leathery or woody bracts. When mature the bracts separate to release the seeds. Usually used to describe the fruits of conifers, also used for the fruits of Casuarinaceae and the inflorescences of conifers.
Confluent: Running together, joined to form one structure, gradually fused.
Conical: A three dimensional shape, which is triangular in median longitudinal section and circular in any transverse section. Like an inverted carrot.
Connate: Joined together, united.
Conspecific: Belonging to the same species.
Contorted ( corolla aestivation): Twisted or bent.
Contortuplicate: Twisted and plaited or folded or twisted back on itself.
Coppice: Vegetative shoots at the base of the stem. The term is usually associated with vegetative shoots from tree stumps following logging but the term is not used in this restricted sense in the Key.
Coracle: A small boat about as long as wide made like a basket and covered with hides, skins or similar material.
Coralloid: Resembling coral.
Cordate: Heart-shaped referring either to the overall shape of the leaf or to the base of a leaf.
Cornute: Like a bullock's horn.
Cosmopolitan: Found in all parts of the world.
Crenate: With small rounded teeth.
Crenulate: With small teeth along the margin.
Cuneate: Wedge-shaped, triangular.
Cusp: A sharp rigid point.
Cyathiform: Shaped like a drinking cup.
Cylindrical: Elongated, circular in cross section.
Cyme: A determinate inflorescence in which each flower terminates each branch of the inflorescence and additional flowers can only be produced by the production of floral branches below the terminal flower.
CYP: Cape York Peninsula. The northern part of Cape York Peninsula, north of Princess Charlotte Bay.
Cystolith: A mineral concretion, often calcium carbonate, produced in specific cells. Cystoliths are a feature of plants in the Moraceae and Urticaceae but are also found in plants in other families.
Dbh: An abbreviation for diameter breast high, i.e. diameter 1.3 m above ground level.
Decurrent: Running down. Often used to describe the prolongation of the leaf tissue beyond the point of insertion of the leaf on the twig.
Decussate: In pairs, with successive pairs at right angles to one another, usually used to describe leaf arrangement.
Dehiscent: Splitting to release contents. Usually applied to fruits or anthers.
Deltoid: Shaped like an equilateral triangle.
Dendritic: With a branched tree-like appearance.
Depressed: Sunk down, flattened from above.
Dioecious: Ovules and viable pollen grains produced on different plants.
Distichous: Arranged in two rows.
Divaricate: Spread apart, widely divergent.
Domatia: Structures in the forks of the midrib and the main lateral veins. They take two main forms, either conspicuous little tufts of hairs or little hooded enclosures (foveoles, i.e. small pits). Domatia may also occur in the forks formed by the branching of the main lateral veins but this is not a frequent occurrence.
Dorsifixed: Attached by the back, often use to describe anthers which are attached to the filament in such a fashion.
Durian: A particular type of germination when the hypocotyl develops and elongates but the cotyledons remain enclosed in the seed coat. The seed is often raised above the surface of the ground but in other cases it remains at or below ground level.
Echinate: Bearing stiff prickles or stout blunt prickles.
Elliptic: Oval in outline, widest at the middle.
Elongate: Much longer than wide.
Endemic: Confined to a particular region (prior to the arrival of modern man).
Epicormic: Refers to the buds or shoots which develop on the trunks of trees.
Epidermis: The outermost layer of an organ, usually only one cell thick.
Epiphyte: A plant which is not a parasite, but grows upon another plant.
Equidimensional: When an organ is the same length when measured in different planes.
Everted: Turned inside out.
Excrescence: A wart-like or other outgrowth on the body of a plant.
Extrorse: Opening outwards, usually applied to anthers. cf. Introrse
Exudate: Liquid (often viscous and coloured) emerging from plant parts such as twigs and leaves but particularly useful as a character of the living bark. Not to be confused with the slippery or mucilaginous cambial layer or water from the sapwood.
Felty: Covered with matted hairs so as to impart a felt-like appearance.
Fimbriate: The margin of an organ which is bordered with long slender processes (particularly hairs).
Flexuous: Bent from side to side in a zig-zag form.
Flounced: With one edge attached while the other edge is free and formed into a ruffle.
Fluted: Longitudinally grooved.
Foliaceous: Like a leaf.
Fusiform: Spindle-shaped, thick but tapering towards each end.
Geniculate: Bent like a knee.
Glabrous: Without hairs.
Glaucous: Covered with a waxy bloom or whitish or greyish substance which can be rubbed off.
Globose: Nearly spherical.
Globular: Globe-shaped, spherical.
Gynoecium: The female part of the flower.
Haustorium: The organ by which a parasite absorbs nutrients from the host plant. In longitudinal section it resembles a root ball in structure.
Head: Usually used to describe inflorescences when the flowers are produced in a definite structure where the flowers (often without stalks) are densely packed in various ways without any obvious branching pattern.
Hemiglobular: Shaped like half a sphere.
Hirsute: Clothed in coarse, long hairs.
Hummock: A small hill or knoll.
Hyaline: Colourless or translucent.
Hydrocyanic: A compound incorporating or derived from hydrogen cyanide.
Hypanthium: A cup-like structure in a flower resulting from the fusion of calyx lobes to form a tube or cup which is also fused to other floral parts so that the stamens and petals are attached at the apex.
Hypocotyl: In a seed the term can be applied to the axis of an embryo below the cotyledons but in this key the term is usually applied to the stem of a seedling below the cotyledons but above the roots.
Imparipinnate: Compound leaves which have an uneven number of pinnae (usually leaflets). This term and its antithesis "paripinnate" can lead to confusion when compound leaves are encountered where the leaflets are arranged in an alternate fashion and not opposite one another on the compound leaf axis or rhachis.
Included: Not protruding beyond the surrounding organ.
Incurved: Bent inwards, curved inwards or upwards.
Indehiscent: Usually applied to fruits which do not split open to release seeds while the fruits are still attached to the tree.
Indeterminate: Indefinite, not completely determined.
Inflated: Swollen, bladder-like, puffed up.
Inflexed: Bent inwards, applied to a number of different organs.
Inflorescence: The arrangement in which flowers are borne on a plant.
Infructescence: The arrangement in which fruits are borne on a plant.
Interpetiolar: Between the petioles.
Intramarginal vein: A vein of constant thickness (much thinner than the midrib) just inside the margin from the base to the apex. Lateral veins run from the midrib to the intramarginal vein. (To be classified as an intramarginal vein, rather than looping lateral veins, there should not be any major bends, although slight indentations may occur at the junction with the main lateral veins.)
Introrse: Opening inwards, usually used to describe anthers.
Lachrimiform (lacrimiform): Shaped like a tear drop.
Laid Rope: Rope consisting of 3-7 or more twisted strands which are then twisted in the opposite direction to form the final product. Not braided or plaited.
Lateral (anther openings): Opening sideways.
Leaflets: The leaf-like subdivision of a compound leaf.
Lenticel: Small pustules on the stems of many rain forest trees composed of material which when rubbed between the fingers has the consistency of borer dust. To see the true colour of lenticels it may be necessary to rub the weathered material off the top of each lenticel to expose the fresher material beneath. Lenticels may also be found on twigs and fruits. Lenticels facilitate gaseous exchange between plant tissue and the atmosphere.
Lenticellate: Beset with lenticels.
Lepidote: Covered with small scales or used to describe scales on an organ, e.g. lepidote scales. In the latter context the term lepidote is used because the scales resemble those on the wings of Butterflies (Order Lepidoptera).
Lignotubers: Lignotubers are swellings which develop in the axils of the cotyledons and increase in size as the seedling grows. They carry food resources and can produce aerial shoots if the seedling is seriously damaged, e.g. in a fire. Usually found in eucalypts, but also found in other Australian species.
Ligule: A tongue-shaped lobe found at the base of leaf blades of grasses and gingers.
Linear: Long and narrow with parallel sides.
Lithophyte: A plant growing on rocks and with a growth habit resembling that of epiphytes. Many epiphytes also grow as lithophytes and vice-versa, e.g. Ficus spp.
Lobed (leaf margins): Margins with large projections or indentations.
Locellate: Divided into little cells or compartments. Usually used to describe anthers.
Lunate: Shaped like a half moon.
Malesia: The area covered by Flora Malesiana, i.e. the area bounded by Peninsular Malaysia to the west, the Philippines to the north and New Britain and New Ireland to the east. The southern boundary takes in New Guinea and all the Indonesian islands but does not include Australia.
Mealy: Having the appearance of meal (ground grain) or dust.
Medifixed: Attached by the middle. Usually used to describe two-armed hairs attached by the middle.
Membranous: A parchment-like texture.
Merous: Used as a suffix to denote numbers of parts in a flower.
Metamorphic: Usually used to describe rocks which have been subject to various stresses and strains (particularly heat and pressure) so that the original structure is changed and components recrystallized and the overall appearance is radically changed.
Mitre: A bishop's tall cap.
Mitriform: Shaped like a bishops ceremonial headdress.
Plants whose seedlings possess one cotyledon. Often with a combination of the following features: herbs or grasslike, with parallel leaf venation and flower parts usually in multiples of 3.
Monoecious: Producing male and female reproductive structures in different flowers but both ovules and viable pollen grains being produced on the same plant. cf. Dioecious
Monogeneric: A family consisting of one genus only.
Monotypic: A genus consisting of one species only.
Monsoon forest: Closed forest with a significant proportion of deciduous trees, growing in areas with a long dry season. Eucalypts are usually absent and the canopy cover is usually so dense that grasses are seldom found as a vigorous component of the ground cover.
Moribund: Almost dead.
Mucilage: Gelatinous secretion.
Mucro: A short sharp tip on an organ.
Multilobulate: With many lobes.
Multistemmed: Trees (or other plants) with a number of + vertical stems of + equal size.
Naturalized: Used to describe a species which has been introduced to an area and is now growing and regenerating in the area without any assistance from man.
NEQ: North East Queensland. The area north of Townsville and south of Princess Charlotte Bay.
NSW: New South Wales.
NT: Northern Territory. The "Top End" of the Northern Territory, north of 19° S, extending from the border with Western Australia to the Queensland border.
Oak Grain: Used to describe the macroscopic appearance of the wood of stems, branches and twigs where the vascular rays are large and obvious. The Queensland Nut tree (Macadamia spp.) has oak grain in the stem and twigs. To observe oak grain in the twigs (which appears rather like spokes in an old cart wheel) cut through a leafy twig at a shallow angle with a pocket knife.
Obcordate: Heart-shaped and attached at the narrow end. cf. Cordate
Obdeltoid: Shaped like an equilateral triangle and attached at the narrow end. cf. Deltoid
Oblong: Longer than wide but with parallel sides.
Obovate: Egg-shaped in outline and attached at the narrower end. cf. Ovate
Obovoid: A solid egg-shaped object with the point of attachment at the narrower end. cf. Obovoid
Obpyriform: A solid pear-shaped object with the point of attachment at the broader end. cf. Pyriform
Obtriangular: Triangular and attached at the narrow end. cf. Triangular
Obtuse: Blunt or rounded at the end.
Open forest: Vegetation dominated by trees where the canopy is not continuous and sufficient light reaches the ground to support vigorous grass growth at least during the wet season. cf. Closed Forest
Orbicular: Flat and circular.
Ovate: Egg-shaped in outline and attached by the broader end.
Ovoid: A solid egg-shaped object with the point of attachment at the broader end.
Palmate: Resembling the palm of a hand, margins lobed or divided so that the clefts point to the apex of the petiole. In this key, palmate leaves are simple leaves unless described as palmately compound.
Panicle: An indeterminate inflorescence in which the flowers are produced in a much branched, complex structure resembling the branching pattern of a tree. It is important to realize that panicles can incorporate other basic inflorescence patterns such as umbels and cymes.
Pantropic: In all tropical regions of the world.
Papilionate: Like a butterfly or with a pea-like flower.
Papillae: Small, elongated protruberances on the surface of an organ.
Papillate: Covered with superficial protuberances.
Papillose: Covered with short pimple-like or nipple-like protuberances on the surface.
Paraboloid: Solid object some of whose plane sections are parabolas.
Patelliform: Shaped like a circular dish, like the bone in the knee cap.
Peltate: Describes organs attached by the middle, e.g. like the handle of an umbrella. Usually used to describe leaves but can be used for other organs.
Perennating bud: A term used to describe the bud on perennial plants particularly those which produce leaves each year above the ground but which then die back in the dry season so that the only part of the plant which persists from one year to the next is an underground tuber.
Perfoliate: When the twig apparently passes through a leaf.
Periphery: The outermost edge of any organ.
Petal Scales: Structures which are usually attached to the inner (adaxial) surface near the base of the petals. Their texture and colour usually approximates that of the petals and they are often hairy. They are a characteristic appendage of the petals of species belonging to the family Sapindaceae.
Petaloid: Like a petal.
Petiole: The leaf stalk.
Petiolule: The stalk of a leaflet of a compound leaf.
Phalange: A bundle of stamens united by their filaments.
Photosynthetically: Produced by photosynthesis, the process whereby green plants use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide (taken from the air) and water into complex substances. Such activity is usually indicated by the tissue being green in colour.
Phyllodineous: Usually used to describe the "leaves" of the commonly encountered Australian acacias. These "leaves" are actually modified petioles, i.e. leaf stalks, and in botanical literature are called phyllodes.
Pilose: Hairy, the hairs rather long and spaced.
Pinnate: Divided into pinnae, once compound.
Pith: The spongy centre of a twig or stem.
Plagiotropic shoots: Vegetative shoots which persist in growing horizontally even when given the opportunity to grow vertically, e.g. the lateral branches of the Hoop Pine tree.
Plicate: Folded or pleated like a fan.
Pod: A dehiscent dry fruit. Usually used to describe leguminous fruits. Also a term which is often used in a general and not particularly critical sense and applied to fruits in non-leguminous families.
Pollen Presenter: A thickened section at the apex of the style which is in contact with the dehiscing anthers and to which the pollen adheres. The shape of the structure varies considerably depending on the species. Found especially in the family Proteaceae.
Pollinia: Aggregated waxy masses of pollen grains (the individual pollen grains often not discernible) transferred as a unit of pollination.
Polyembryonic: Seeds with more than one embryo within each seed coat. This feature is encountered in a number of species, e.g. Mango - Mangifera indica and some species of Syzygium. Not to be confused with many seeds in a fruit.
Pore (anther): A + circular opening through which the pollen is shed.
Praemorse: As though bitten off.
Prop Roots: Roots growing down to the soil from the lower stem or branches.
Prostrate: Lying flat.
Pseudo-whorled: Usually used to describe the arrangement of leaves on a twig. The leaves appear to be whorled but closer inspection reveals that they are in fact in a tight spiral, e.g. Neolitsea dealbata, Lophostemon confertus and Terminalia catappa.
Puberulous: Slightly covered with minute soft and erect hairs.
Pubescent: Covered with short, soft and erect hairs.
Pulvini: See Pulvinus.
Pulvinus: A fleshy swelling on the petiole at its junction with the leaf blade. Often associated with an angle or change in direction of the petiole. Swellings at the junction of the petiole and the twig are not regarded as pulvini. In the case of compound leaves, a swelling at the junction of the leaflet stalk and leaflet blade is regarded as a pulvinus.
Punctate: Marked with dots, spots, pits or glands.
Pungent: Ending in a sharp and rigid point.
Pustulate: Covered by small blister-like pimples or bubbles.
Radiate: Spreading from or arranged round a common centre.
Radiate-striolate: Radiating lines of grooves or ridges.
Ramiflorous: Flowers borne on the branches in the crown of a tree.
Raphides: Small needle-shaped crystals in or amongst the cells of plants. Commonly found in Araceae.
Recurved: Curved backwards or downwards. Often used to describe a leaf margin which is bent downwards.
Reniform: Kidney-shaped, e.g. sheep kidney.
Reticulate: With an appearance like that of a fish net.
Retrorse: Directed backwards or downwards.
Reversion shoots: Vegetative shoots on the stem and branches which have many of the characteristics of the shoots and leaves on seedlings rather than those on adult shoots.
Rheophyte: A plant which grows on creek and river banks and which has adaptations which allow it to survive floods and strong currents.
Rostrate: Narrowed into a slender tip or point.
Rugulose: Somewhat wrinkled.
Saccate: Bag-shaped or pouched.
Sandpapery: With a texture of sandpaper.
Scale leaves: Leaf-like structures which do not develop fully into true leaves.
Scandent: Climbing by any means.
Scrobiculate: Marked by shallow depressions or pits.
Scrub: A predominantly Queensland term for rain forest.
Scurfy: Scaly, covered with small flakes.
Scutelliform: A flat but slightly dished oval object.
Secund: Parts or organs arising from or directed to one side only.
Seedling: The young plant shortly after germination.
Septate: Divided internally by partitions.
Sessile: Without a stalk.
Seta: A bristle or bristle-shaped structure.
Setiferous: Beset with bristles.
Setose: Covered with bristles.
Short-boled: With a short stem.
Sigmoid: Curved twice in opposite directions.
Sinuous: With many curves, snake-like.
Sinus: A curve or bend.
Snig: To drag a log out of the forest usually by means of a crawler tractor or similar mechanical device.
Snig track: A narrow track through the forest along which a log or number of logs have been removed.
Spathe: A large bract enclosing a flower cluster.
Spinose: Spiny, having spines.
Spinulose: Covered or beset with small spines.
Staminode: A structure resembling stamens to some degree but not producing pollen grains. Often found in female flowers.
Standard: The broad, upper, + erect petal of a papilionaceous (fabaceous) flower.
Stigma: The structure on the pistil upon which pollen is deposited and from where it can fertilize the ovules. Usually found at the apex of the style or the apex of the ovary or carpel if the style is not developed.
Stipules: Small growths on the twig, generally found in pairs, one on each side of the twig at the junction of the petiole and the twig. Stipules frequently fall off early in life and the only indication of stipules is the presence of scars on the twig. Stipules are best seen on fresh succulent shoots. Figs (Ficus spp.) and some other trees have sheathing stipules, i.e. stipules which enclose the apical bud on each twig. Stipules are readily seen on the commonly cultivated hibiscus.
Stolon: A slender branch or shoot which takes root and eventually develops into a new plant.
Storied: Arranged one above the other, i.e. in layers.
Striate: Marked by parallel lines either grooves or ridges.
Striolate: Marked by minute lines.
Style head: A term used to describe the situation in families such as Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae where the styles from separate carpels are fused to form a single stigma-like structure at the apex.
Subequal: Nearly equal.
Subopposite: Nearly opposite.
Subreniform: Nearly kidney-shaped.
Subrhytidome: The subrhytidome is a very thin layer of living bark just beneath the dead bark and before the outer blaze proper begins. It can be a very different colour from the outer blaze or it may be almost the same colour and continuous with it
Subtropical: Nearly tropical.
Superposed: Placed vertically above.
Syncarpous: Composed of two or more united carpels.
Taxon: Any recognizable taxonomic unit or entity, e.g. a species, genus, family, etc.
Temperate: One of the climatic regions of the world. In the Southern Hemisphere the area between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle.
Tomentose: Clothed in dense, matted, woolly hairs.
Tortuous: Twisted and bent in different directions.
Torulose: Long and narrow but swollen at regular intervals. cf. Moniliform
Translator: The elastic structure holding the pollen masses.
Transversely: Across, crossways as in left to right.
Triad: A group of three.
Trichome: A collective term to describe any unbranched epidermal outgrowth, e.g. hair, bristle, prickle, etc.
Trifoliate: With three leaves.
Trilobed: With three lobes.
Triplinerved: Three-veined. The leaf has a midrib or main central longitudinal vein and two main veins (of similar thickness) running more or less parallel to the margin of the leaf blade but some distance from it. The two main lateral veins may approximate the midrib in thickness and extend halfway up the leaf blade or approach the apex.
Triquetrous: Three-angled in cross section.
Triradiate: A term used to describe an orifice opening along three radial lines.
Truncate: Ending abruptly as though cut off.
Tuberculate: Clothed in knobbly or wart-like projections.
Tubercules: Small wart-like outgrowths.
Tubiform: Hollow and dilated at one end like a trumpet.
Tyloses: A cell or growth intruding into a duct or vessel. A characteristic of the vessels in the heartwood of trees.
Umbonate: Equipped with a knob or projection near the centre of the organ.
Understory: The lower level of vegetation in a forest.
Unifoliolate: A compound leaf which has been reduced in the evolutionary process to one leaflet. Easily mistaken for a simple leaf.
Uninerved: With one main nerve or vein.
Unisexual: Possessing only one type of sexual organ, either pistils or stamens but not both.
Velutinous: Velvety, clothed in fine soft hairs.
Venation: The arrangement of veins in a leaf or other organ.
Ventrifixed (anther): Attached to the inner surface as opposed to the outer surface. cf. dorsifixed
Verrucose: Covered with numerous small bumps or wart-like processes.
Versatile (anther): Swinging freely about the point of attachment.
Vesicle: A small bladder or cavity.
Vesicular: Composed of vessels or bladders.
Vestigial: The remains or trace of an organ which has largely disappeared during evolutionary processes.
Villous: Clothed in long, weak hairs.
WA: Western Australia. The Kimberley Region, being Western Australia north of 19° S, extending from Broome in the west to the Northern Territory border.
Warted: Covered in warts.
Whorl: The arrangement of organs in a circle around a central axis, e.g. the branches on the stem of a Hoop Pine (Araucaria cunninghamii).
Xylem: The woody part of a plant, e.g. the stem of a tree.