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Araucaria cunninghamii



Botanical Name

Araucaria cunninghamii Aiton ex D.Don

Don, D. (1828) In Lambert, A. B. Descr. Gen. Pinus, ed. 2: . Type: ?.


Araucaria cunninghamii var. glauca Endl., Synopsis Coniferarum: 187(1847), Type: ?. Araucaria cunninghamii A.Cunn., A Description of the genus Pinus ed. 3, 2: 144-5(1832), Type: But it was not until my visit to the shores of Moreton Bay with the late Mr. Oxley in 1824, .... Araucaria cunninghamii A.Cunn. f. cunninghamii, Comprehensive Catalogue of Queensland Plants: 513(1913), Type: ?. Araucaria cunninghamii A.Cunn. var. cunninghamii, Synopsis Coniferarum: 187(1847), Type: ?. Araucaria cunninghamii forma glauca F.M.Bailey, Comprehensive Catalogue of Queensland Plants: 513(1913), Type: ?. Araucaria cunninghamii var. longifolia Endl., Synopsis Coniferarum: 187(1847), Type: Antoine Conif. t. 44. f. 2.. Eutassa cunninghamii (G.Don) Spach, Histoire Naturelle des Vegetaux. Phanerogames 11: 362(1841), Type: ?. Araucaria cunninghamii Sweet, Sweet's Hortus Britannicus: 475(1830), Type: N. Holland. 1827.. Araucaria cunninghamii Sweet ex Courtois, Magasin d'Horticulture. Liege 1: 192(1833), Type: Il est originaire de la Nouvelle Hollande, do~E il nest connu en Angleterre que depuis 1827. Jen ai vu un beau pied de graines chez M.Jacob. Eutacta cunninghamii Link, Linnaea: 545(1841), Type: Hab. in Moreton Bay et ad fluvium Brisbane Australiae..

Common name

Moreton Bay Pine; Rocket Tree; Richmond River Pine; Queensland Pine; Pine, Richmond River; Pine, Queensland; Pine, Moreton Bay; Pine, Dorrigo; Pine, Hoop; Hoop Pine; Dorrigo Pine; Colonial Pine; Pine, Colonial


Bark shed in horizontal strips.


Leaves narrow and short (less than 8 x 3 mm) ending in sharp points.


Male cones about 3.5-8 cm long.


Cones 5-10 cm long. Seed difficult to distinguish being enclosed in a winged cone scale.


Cotyledons bilobed, deeply divided to the base, the lobes very narrow, about 20-25 mm long. At the tenth leaf stage: leaves sessile, flat, tapering to a needle-like point at the apex.

Distribution and Ecology

A species a with scattered distribution in CYP but rare and restricted in NEQ, extending southwards to north-eastern New South Wales and reaching its best development in south-eastern Queensland. Altitudinal range in CYP and NEQ from near sea level to about 600 m. In CYP and NEQ this species tends to occur in situations where luxuriant rain forest development is precluded by unfavourable soil or substrate conditions but where forest fires seldom occur. Also occurs in New Guinea.

Natural History

This species was the mainstay of the timber industry in Southern Queensland from the time of first settlement up to the Second World War. However, although it occurs sporadically in North Queensland, it has never made a significant contribution to the timber industry. The significant stands in the McIlwraith Range area near Coen have never been exploited as they are too far away from market areas and extraction costs are prohibitive.

The timber or this species has had a wide range of uses: boxes and cases, broom handles, butter churns, stoves for cooperage, blackboards, office fittings, plywood, kitchen furniture, internal house fittings, sheeting, venetian blinds, bread boards, washboards, instrument cases, ammunition boxes, piano cases and keys, violin backs and bellies, paper pulp, masts and booms in sailing boats, boat planking and oars. Swain (1928).

Wood specific gravity 0.56. Cause et al. (1989).







RFK Code