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Leaves and Flowers. Copyright CSIRO
Male flowers. Copyright CSIRO
10th leaf stage. Copyright CSIRO
Cotyledon stage, epigeal germination. Copyright CSIRO
Scale bar 10mm. Copyright CSIRO
Canarium australasicum (F.M.Bailey) Leenh.
Leenhouts, P.W. (1952) Blumea 7: 159. Type: ?.
Canarium baileyanum Leenh., Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 216: 45(1955), Type: ?. Protium australasicum (Bailey) Sprague, Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Kew: 370(1932), Type: ?. Bursera australasica F.M.Bailey, Queensland Department of Agriculture and Stock. Botany Bulletin 5: 8(1892), Type: Eumundi, J.F. Bailey and J.H. Simmond..
Brown Cudgerie; Carrotwood; Mango Bark; Mango Carrotwood; Parsnip Wood
On large trees, the compound leaf is sometimes reduced to the terminal leaflet only or the compound leaf consists of 3-5 leaflets with a pulvinus on the terminal leaflet but not on the lateral leaflets. On smaller trees a pulvinus may be produced not only on the terminal leaflet but also on the lateral leaflets. Lateral veins forming loops well inside the blade margin. Midrib raised on the upper surface. Leaf or leaflet blades about 3-9 x 1.5-4 cm.
Male flowers: Inflorescences about 4-11 cm long, not exceeding the leaves. Calyx +/- cup-shaped, the lobes about 0.5 mm long. Petals dark red to maroon, elliptic to ovate, about 4 x 3 mm. Stamens 6, filaments about 1.8 mm long, anthers yellow or orange. Female flowers: Flowers about 5 mm diam. Calyx green to yellow, +/- cup-shaped, about 2 x 2.5 mm, the lobes about 1 mm long. Petals dark red to maroon, ovate to elliptic, about 3 x 2 mm. Staminodes 6. Ovary globose, about 1-1.5 mm diam. Ovules 1 per locule. Stigma sessile with 3 indistinct lobes.
Fruits about 8-9 mm long. Cotyledons 3-lobed.
Cotyledons trifoliolate with the lateral leaflets divided again almost to the base, petiole hairy. First pair of leaves without teeth. At the tenth leaf stage: new growth clothed in short, rusty brown hairs or scales.
Distribution and Ecology
Endemic to Australia, widespread in CYP, NEQ and southwards to north-eastern New South Wales. Altitudinal range in CYP and NEQ from 150-1200 m. A characteristic tree of the upland and mountain rain forests of NEQ.
Produces a useful, non-durable, general purpose timber. The timber of this species resembles that of the very durable and highly prized Gmelina fasciculiflora which was used extensively as window sills in North Queensland. There have been cases where enterprising (but rather short-sighted) sawmillers have used the timber of Canarium australianum as substitute material for the manufacture of window sills.
Wood specific gravity 0.54. Cause et al. (1989).