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Croton arnhemicus

Family

Euphorbiaceae

Botanical Name

Croton arnhemicus Mull.Arg.

Mueller Argoviensis, J. (1865) Linnaea 34: 112. Type: In Arnhemsland Novae Hollandia septentrionalis (Dr. F. Mueller! in hb. DC.). Lecto: Qld, Cape York, MacGillivray 514; K. (Fide Forster (2003).

Synonyms

Croton arnhemicus Mull.Arg. var. arnhemicus, Adansonia 6: 300(1866), Type: ?. Croton arnhemicus var. typicus Domin, Bibliotheca Botanica 89(4): 883(1928), Type: ?. Croton arnhemicus var. urenifolius Baill., Adansonia 6: 300(1866), Type: Fitzalan, Port-Denison, Edgecombe Bay. J. Dallachy (1863), Edgecombe hight (herb. F. Muell.!).

Common name

Hard Cascarilla

Stem

Seldom exceeding 30 cm dbh. Blaze odour rather spicy. White or cream granular stripes in the outer blaze.

Leaves

Stipules narrow, about 2 mm long. Leaf blade +/- cordate, about 6-15 x 3-11 cm. Stellate hairs visible with a lens on leafy twigs, petioles and both the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf blade. Two stalked glands visible on the underside, at the base of the leaf blade, one on either side of the midrib. Oil dots visible with a lens. Old leaves turn orange prior to falling.

Flowers

Inflorescence and floral parts densely clothed in stellate hairs. Flowers about 4 mm diam. Male flowers: Flowers with about 20-30 stamens. Female flowers: Ovary densely stellate hairy.

Fruit

Capsules about 10 mm diam., densely clothed in stellate hairs. Calyx lobes persistent at the base of the fruit. Embryo and endosperm white. Aril is a caruncle.

Seedlings

Cotyledons +/- cordate, about 15-21 x 12-15 mm, hairy, hypocotyl hairy. First pair of leaves, margin toothed and white. At the tenth leaf stage: leaf blade +/- cordate, margin +/- crenate, the underside densely clothed in stellate hairs; two stalked glands visible on the underside at the base of the leaf blade, one on either side of the midrib.

Distribution and Ecology

Occurs in WA, NT, CYP, NEQ and southwards as far as the northern part of coastal central Queensland. Altitudinal range from near sea level to 600 m. Grows in monsoon forest, drier rain forest and along creeks and rivers through open forest country. Possibly occurs in New Guinea.

NT

X

CYP

X

NEQ

X

Shrub (woody or herbaceous, 1-6 m tall)

X

Tree

X

RFK Code

597