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Ficus virens var. virens



Botanical Name

Ficus virens Aiton var. virens

Corner, E.J.H. (1960) The Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 17: 377. Type: ?.


Ficus virens Aiton, Hortus Kewensis 3: 451(1789), Type: Nat. of the West Indies. Introd. about 1762, by Mr. James Gordon. Cultivated at K. Holo: BM. Ficus glabella var. nesophila (Miq.) K.Schum., Die Flora der Deutschen Schutzgebiete in der Sudsee: 273(1900), Type: ?. Ficus lacor Buch.-Ham., Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 15: 150(1827), Type: Habitat ad Indiae Gangeticae pagos varius.. Ficus infectoria var. typica Domin, Bibliotheca Botanica 89(4): 563(1928), Type: ?. Ficus infectoria var. psychotriifolium (Miq.) Domin, Bibliotheca Botanica 89(4): 562(1921), Type: ?. Ficus infectoria var. fraseri (Miq.) Domin, Bibliotheca Botanica 89(4): 562(1921), Type: ?. Ficus infectoria var. cunninghamii (Miq.) Domin, Bibliotheca Botanica 89(4): 562(1928), Type: ?. Ficus virens var. sublanceolata (Miq.) Corner, The Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 17: 377(1960), Type: ?. Ficus caulobotrya var. fraseri (Miq.) Miq., Annales Musei Botanici Lugduno-Batavi 3: 287(1867), Type: ?. Ficus saxophila var. sublanceolata Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno- Batavum 3: 260(1867), Type: Sumatra, De Vriese. Ficus cunninghamii (Miq.) Miq., Annales Musei Botanici Lugduno-Batavi 3: 286(1867), Type: ?. Urostigma psychotriifolium Miq., Hooker's London Journal of Botany 6 6: 561(1847), Type: Ad Brisbane River, Novae Hollandiae Fraser, 1829 n. 73 in Herb. Hook. Ficus nesophila (Miq.) Miq., Annales Musei Botanici Lugduno-Batavi: 268(1867), Type: ?. Urostigma nesophilum Miq., Journal de Botanique Neerlandaise 1: 237(1861), Type: in insulis Quail ad oram Novae Hollandiae: Flood. Holo: K (?). Ficus psychotriifolia (Miq.) Miq., Annales Musei Botanici Lugduno-Batavi 3: 286(1867), Type: ?. Urostigma cunninghamii Miq., Hooker's London Journal of Botany 6: 560(1847), Type: Brisbane R., in densis sylvis, All. Cunningham. Holo: K. Ficus infectoria Willd., Species Plantarum ed. 4: 1137(1806), Type: Habitat in India orientali. Urostigma fraseri Miq., Hooker's London Journal of Botany6 6: 561(1847), Type: Ad Bremer River, Novae Hollandiae, Fraser 1829 n. 704 in Hb. Hook.

Common name

Mountain Fig; Banyan; Fig, Green; Fig, Mountain; Fig, Strangler; Figwood; Green Fig; Strangler Fig; White Fig; Fig, White


A strangling fig or banyan fig. Deciduous; leafless for about a week in September, October or November. Lenticels often in horizontal lines. Bark exudate rapid and copious.


Stipules about 0.5-1.5 cm long. Petiole with two ridges and three grooves on the upper surface. Leaf blades about 8-19 x 3.5-9 cm. Small oil dots visible with a lens, more conspicuous on the upper than on the lower surface of the leaf blade. Petiole producing a fairly clear watery to slightly watery-milky exudate.


Male flowers produced around the ostiole. In the female flower, the stigma linear, lateral and tuberculate. Bracts at the base of the fig, three, persistent. Lateral bracts not present on the outside of the fig body.


Figs sessile or pedunculate, peduncles up to 6 mm long, figs +/- globular, depressed globular or pyriform, about 8-13 x 7-12 mm. Orifice closed by interlocking apical and internal bracts.


Cotyledons orbicular to ovate, about 2-3 mm long, very small oil dots visible with a lens. At the tenth leaf stage: leaf blade ovate to lanceolate, apex acute, base cordate, glabrous; oil dots not visible or oil dots very small, visible with a lens; petiole glabrous; stipules sheathing the terminal bud, elongate-triangular, about 5-10 mm long, falling early. Taproot slightly swollen.

Distribution and Ecology

Occurs in WA, NT, CYP, NEQ and southwards as far as coastal central Queensland. Altitudinal range from sea level to 1150 m. Grows in well developed rain forest, drier, more seasonal rain forest, beach forest and monsoon forest. Also occurs in Asia, Malesia and the SW Pacific islands.

Natural History

A common and widespread species. Produces large spreading branches with numerous aerial roots. Suitable only for large parks and gardens where they make distinctive specimens.

Leaf material of this species was active against some tumors. Collins et al. (1990).











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