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Harnieria hygrophiloides

Family

Acanthaceae

Botanical Name

Harnieria hygrophiloides (F.Muell.) R.M.Barker

Barker, R.M. (1996) Jour. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 17: 149. Type: ?.

Synonyms

Calophanoides hygrophiloides (F.Muell.) R.M.Barker, Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens 9: 237(1986), Type: ?. Justicia hygrophiloides F.Muell., Fragm. Phyt. Austral. 6: 89(1867), Type: Queensland, Top of Coast Range, Rockingham Bay, J. Dallachy s.n.; lecto: MEL 601975. Fide Barker (1986).

Stem

Usually flowers and fruits as a shrub about 1 m tall.

Leaves

Leaf blades about 2.5-11.5 x 1-3 cm. Petioles about 2-6 mm long. Twigs often grooved above the petioles to the next node. Twigs rather pithy, puberulous. Lateral veins curving but not forming definite loops inside the blade margin.

Flowers

Inflorescence consists of flowers arising from sessile clusters of 2-4 obcordate bracts in each axil. Peduncles persistent on the older twigs. Calyx segments linear-lanceolate, about 8.5-10 mm long. Corolla 2-lipped (one lip 3-lobed and the other 2-lobed) white or cream with purple markings, tube about 7 mm long, hairy inside particularly towards the base. Two sack-like nectaries usually apparent on the inner surface. Stamens exserted, filaments about 6 mm long. Anthers with one tailed locule and one locule without a tail, locules quite separate, superposed. Connective clothed in bristles. Ovary ellipsoid, surrounded by a 2-lobed glandular disk, glabrous. Style hairy particularly in the lower half. Stigma slightly notched or 2-lobed at the apex.

Fruit

Two large bilobed bracts present at the base of each cluster of fruits. Calyx green, persistent and extending from the base to about 3/4 the length of the capsule. Capsule smooth, ellipsoid, about 8-10.5 mm long. Seeds 2-4 per capsule, each seed about 2 x 1.7 mm, +/- disk-shaped, testa colliculate, yellow initially, dark brown later. Embryo bent in the middle so the radicle and cotyledons lie side by side.

Seedlings

Cotyledons orbicular to obovate, about 6-11 x 5-8 mm, apex emarginate. Hairs on the hypocotyl arranged in vertical rows. At the tenth leaf stage: leaf margins slightly crenate. Stems with grooves running from the base of each petiole to the next lower pair of leaves. Stem clothed in very short, pale, prostrate hairs.

Distribution and Ecology

Endemic to Australia, occurs in NEQ and southwards to north-eastern New South Wales. Altitudinal range from 500-1040 m. Usually grows in the drier types of rain forest and wet sclerophyll forests adjacent to rain forest. Possibly occurs in New Guinea.

NEQ

X

Herb (herbaceous or woody, under 1 m tall)

X

Shrub (woody or herbaceous, 1-6 m tall)

X

RFK Code

3002